Fiber Optics has proven to be the most important technology for Next Generation Telecommunications networks, providing high or ultra high speed connectivity platforms. Not only fixed access networks benefit from Fiber Optic solutions, but also wireless networks, especially those related to increasing the interconnection capacity between POPs or Points of Presence of Operators.
Both the implementation of fiber optic networks and the multitude of solutions that include the active parts of the network, the deployment and operation, the management, billing and control of subscribers as well as the great challenge of overcoming the competition of coaxial or copper-based solutions , they imply a big change for the operators. Copper and coaxial technologies continue to develop and squeeze more and more bandwidth. And i suggest you. You read this optical termination box in china.
The DOCSIS 3.1 specification, for example, can support downloads beyond 15 Gbps in bandwidths of 258 – 1794 MHz, which makes copper a competitive alternative for traditional operators who insist with HFC technologies.
It is natural for operators to want and need to use their installed copper base, however, it is increasingly evident that migration to Fiber Optic networks is fully underway. This is not only due to the high downlink speeds, but to higher QoS (Quality of Service), which allows higher uplink speeds to access services in the cloud, lower latency and greater economy, making the technology supported in Fibra (FTTx) is more competitive in the coming years. Some of the operators have difficulty predicting the short-term economic benefits, but most know, which is key to achieving long-term competitiveness.
An interesting trend worth mentioning is that FTTx technology is not limited to “home” or the end user. With the introduction of new standards, such as the NG-PON2, FTTx networks will be able to take on more functions, such as mobile backhaul and front haul, enterprise clients and Cloud connectivity.
Architecture of the FTTx Networks
Variations of the basic network architectures are possible depending on the number of fibers, position of the splitters or branch points, as well as the aggregation points. Choosing the right architecture for a network generates considerable debate, especially since there is often no visible winner, since different architectures easily adapt to different technical requirements or priorities.
Fiber to the house (FTTH) Fiber to The Home – Each subscriber is connected by a fiber dedicated to a port in the POP, or to a Passive Optical splitter, using a fiber shared by Ethernet (EPON) or Giga Ethernet GPON in case of topology point to multipoint.
Fiber to the building (FTTB) Fiber to the Building – Each optical termination box manufacturer in the building (often located in the basement, is connected by a fiber dedicated to a port in the equipment in the POP, or to an optical port of the splitters that use the feeder fiber that is shared in the POP The connections between the subscribers and the basement of the Building are not fiber, but they can be copper and they suppose some type of Ethernet transport suitable to the medium available in the vertical wiring. In some cases, the subscribers are individually connected to the POP, but they do so on a chain or ring structure to use the existing fibers deployed in particular topologies.
Fiber to the Cabinet (FTTC) Fiber to the Curb – Each DSL access multiplexer (DSLAM), often found in a closet located on the street, is connected to the POP through a single fiber or a pair of fibers, carrying the aggregate traffic from the neighborhood through a Gigabit Ethernet or 10 Gigabit Ethernet connection. The internal switching of the street cabinet is not optical, but it can be based on VDSL2 copper. This architecture is called “Active Ethernet” because it requires active network elements in the field.
Fiber to the Antenna (FTTA) Fiber to the Antenna – Replaces the coaxial cable that reaches the antennas of the cellular service providers.